Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a 90-foot diamond. Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the batting team can stop at any of the bases and later advance via a teammate's hit or other means. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the fielding team records three outs. One turn at bat for each team constitutes an inning and nine innings make up a professional game. The team with the most runs at the end of the game wins. Evolving from older bat-and-ball games, an early form of baseball was being played in England by the mid-eighteenth century. This game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late nineteenth century, baseball was widely recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is now popular in North America, parts of Central and South America and the Caribbean, and parts of East Asia. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball (MLB) teams are divided into the National League (NL) and American League (AL), each with three divisions: East, West, and Central. The major league champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series. Five teams make the playoffs from each league: the three regular season division winners, plus two wild card teams. Baseball is the leading team sport in both Japan and Cuba, and the top level of play is similarly split between two leagues: Japan's Central League and Pacific League; Cuba's West League and East League. In the National and Central leagues, the pitcher is required to bat, per the traditional rules. In the American, Pacific, and both Cuban leagues, there is a tenth player, a designated hitter, who bats for the pitcher. Each top-level team has a farm system of one or more minor league teams.
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball league, consisting of teams that play in the American League and the National League. The two leagues merged in 2000 into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball, after 100 years as separate legal entities. MLB constitutes one of the major professional sports leagues of the United States and Canada. It is composed of 30 teams — 29 in the United States and 1 in Canada.
Major League BaseballMonopoliesMajor League BaseballProfessional sports leagues in CanadaOrganizations established in 1869Baseball leagues in the United StatesProfessional sports leagues in the United StatesBaseball governing bodies in the United States
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond. Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to stop them from scoring runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways.
BaseballOlympic sportsBall and bat gamesBaseballTeam sportsBall games1846 introductionsSports originating in the United States
Minor league baseball
Part of the History of baseball series. Title=Minor league baseball;ns=0/Main/;language:wiki=en,locale=en 150pxMinor League Baseball logoSport BaseballFounded 1869No. of teams 240Country(ies) United StatesCanadaMexicoDominican RepublicVenezuelaPuerto Rico [Puerto Rico is not a country - it is part of the United States]Most recent champion(s) variousOfficial website minorleaguebaseball.
Minor league baseballProfessional sports leaguesMinor league baseballOrganizations established in 1901History of baseball
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located at 25 Main Street in Cooperstown, New York and operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, and honors those who have excelled in playing, managing, and serving the sport.
National Baseball Hall of Fame and MuseumMuseums in Otsego County, New YorkHalls of fame in New YorkOrganizations established in 1936National Baseball Hall of FameNational halls of fame in the United StatesSports museums in New YorkBaseball museums and halls of fame
In baseball, a run is scored when a player advances around first, second and third base and returns safely to home plate, touching the bases in that order, before three outs are recorded and all obligations to reach base safely on batted balls are met or assured. A player may score by hitting a home run or by any combination of plays that puts him safely "on base" (that is, on first, second, or third) as a runner and subsequently brings him home.
Run (baseball)Baserunning statisticsBaseball rulesScoringBaseball terminology
In baseball, the field manager (commonly referred to as the manager) is an individual who is responsible for matters of team strategy on the field and team leadership. Managers are typically assisted by between one and six assistant coaches, whose responsibilities are specialized. A manager is essentially equivalent to the head coach in other North American professional sports leagues.
Manager (baseball)Baseball occupationsBaseball managersBaseball strategySports coachesBaseball coaches
Baseball is a team sport which is played by several professional leagues throughout the world. In these leagues, and associated farm teams, players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system.
Professional baseballBaseballBaseball leagues
Major League Baseball All-Star Game
The Major League Baseball All-Star Game, also known as the "Midsummer Classic", is an annual baseball game between players from the National League and the American League, currently selected by a combination of fans, players, coaches, and managers. The All-Star Game usually occurs on the second Tuesday in July and marks the symbolic halfway point in the Major League Baseball (MLB) season (though not the mathematical halfway point; in most seasons, that actually takes place one week earlier).
Major League Baseball All-Star GameMajor League Baseball All-Star GameAll-star gamesRecurring sporting events established in 1933
The International League (IL) is a minor league baseball league that operates in the eastern United States. Like the Pacific Coast League and the Mexican League, it plays at the Triple-A level, which is one step below Major League Baseball. It was so named because it had teams in both the United States and Canada (and for several years in the 1950s in Cuba as well).
International LeagueMinor baseball leagues in the United StatesOrganizations established in 1885International League
College baseball is baseball that is played on the intercollegiate level at institutions of higher education. Compared to football and basketball, college competition in the United States plays a less significant contribution to cultivating professional players, as the minor leagues primarily fulfill that role. Unlike football and basketball, players do not have to go to college to turn professional.
College baseballCollege baseball in the United States
In baseball, a number of coaches assist in the smooth functioning of a team. They are assistants to the manager, or head coach, who determines the lineup and decides how to substitute players during the game. Beyond the manager, more than a half dozen coaches may assist the manager in running the team. Baseball is unique in that the manager and coaches typically all wear numbered uniforms similar to those of the players.
Coach (baseball)Baseball coachesBaseball occupationsSports coaches
A center fielder, abbreviated CF, is the outfielder in baseball who plays defense in center field – the baseball fielding position between left field and right field. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the center fielder is assigned the number 8.
Center fielderSoftballBaseball positions
In baseball, a pinch hitter is a substitute batter. Batters can be substituted at any time while the ball is dead (not in active play); the manager may use any player that has not yet entered the game as a substitute. Unlike basketball, American football, or ice hockey, baseball does not have a "free substitution rule" and thus the replaced player in baseball is never allowed back into that game. The pinch hitter assumes the spot in the batting order of the player he replaces.
Pinch hitterBaseball positionsBaseball terminologyBatting (baseball)
In baseball statistics, slugging percentage (abbreviated SLG) is a popular measure of the power of a hitter. It is calculated as total bases divided by at bats: where AB is the number of at-bats for a given player, and 1B, 2B, 3B, and HR are the number of singles, doubles, triples, and home runs, respectively. Walks are specifically excluded from this calculation. For example, in 1920, Babe Ruth played his first season for the New York Yankees.
Slugging percentageBaseball terminologyBatting statistics
"Professional football" redirects here. For American and Canadian codes of football, see Professional football (gridiron). Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance. Professional athleticism has come to the fore through a combination of developments. Mass media and increased leisure have brought larger audiences, so that sports organizations or teams can command large incomes.
Professional sportsIndustriesSports businessSports culture
Triple-A (or Class AAA) refers to the highest level of play in minor league baseball in the United States and Mexico.
Triple-A (baseball)Pacific Coast LeagueMinor league baseballInternational League
Eastern League (baseball)
The Eastern League is a minor league baseball league, which operates primarily in the northeastern United States, although it has had a team in Ohio since 1989. The Eastern League has played at the AA (Double-A) level since 1963. The league was founded in 1923, as the New York-Pennsylvania League. In 1936, the first team outside of the two original states was created, when the York White Roses of York, Pennsylvania moved to Trenton, New Jersey and renamed the Trenton Senators.
Eastern League (baseball)Eastern League (baseball)Minor baseball leagues in the United StatesOrganizations established in 1923
Baseball America is a sports magazine which covers baseball at every level, with a particular focus on up-and-coming players in high school, college, Japan, and the minor leagues. It is currently published in the form of a bi-weekly newspaper, five annual reference book titles, a weekly podcast, and a website. It also regularly produces lists of the top prospects in the sport, and covers aspects of the game from a player-development point of view.
Baseball AmericaPublications established in 1980Baseball magazinesBaseball websitesCompanies based in Durham, North CarolinaAmerican sports magazines
Nippon Professional Baseball
Nippon Professional Baseball or NPB is the highest level of baseball in Japan. Locally, it is often called Puro Yakyū, meaning Professional Baseball. Outside of Japan, it is often just referred to as "Japanese baseball. " The roots of the league can be traced back to the formation of the "Greater Japan Tokyo Baseball Club" in 1934 and the original Japanese Baseball League. NPB was formed when that league reorganized in 1950.
Nippon Professional BaseballHistory of baseball1950 establishments in JapanProfessional sports leaguesNippon Professional BaseballBaseball leagues in JapanSports leagues established in 1950
Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award
The Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award (MVP) is an annual Major League Baseball (MLB) award, given to one outstanding player in the American League and one in the National League. Since 1931, it has been awarded by the Baseball Writers Association of America (BBWAA).
Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player AwardAwards established in 1931Major League Baseball trophies and awardsMost Valuable Player awards
In baseball statistics, an error is the act, in the judgment of the official scorer, of a fielder misplaying a ball in a manner that allows a batter or baserunner to reach one or more additional bases, when such an advance would have been prevented given ordinary effort by the fielder. The term error can also refer to the play in which an error was committed.
Error (baseball)Baseball terminologyFielding statistics
Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely. A person may also semi-retire by reducing work hours. Many people choose to retire when they are eligible for private or public pension benefits, although some are forced to retire when physical conditions no longer allow the person to work any more (by illness or accident) or as a result of legislation concerning their position.
RetirementRetirementTermination of employmentAging
Southern League (baseball)
The Southern League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the Southern United States. It is classified a Double-A league. The original league was formed in 1885, and shut down in 1899. A new league, the Southern Association, was formed in 1900, consisting of twelve teams. The Association shut down after the 1961 campaign.
Southern League (baseball)Minor baseball leagues in the United StatesSouthern League (baseball)
Negro league baseball
Part of the History of baseball in the United States series.
Negro league baseballHistory of baseballAfrican-American cultureAfrican American sports historyNegro league baseballDefunct baseball leagues
In baseball, the umpire is the person charged with officiating the game, including beginning and ending the game, enforcing the rules of the game and the grounds, making judgment calls on plays, and handling the disciplinary actions. The term is often shortened to the colloquial form ump. They are also sometimes addressed as blue at lower levels due to the common color of the uniform worn by umpires.
Umpire (baseball)Baseball occupationsSports officiatingBaseball umpires
College World Series
The College World Series or CWS is an annual baseball tournament held in Omaha, Nebraska that is the culmination of the NCAA Division I Baseball Championship, which determines the NCAA Division I college baseball champion. The eight teams are split into two, four-team, double-elimination brackets, with the winner of each bracket playing in the best-of-three championship series. The tournament takes place in June of each year.
College World SeriesNCAA championshipsRecurring sporting events established in 1947Organizations based in Omaha, NebraskaTourism in Omaha,NebraskaCollege World SeriesBaseball in NebraskaSports in Omaha, Nebraska
A perfect game is defined by Major League Baseball as a game in which a pitcher (or combination of pitchers) pitches a victory that lasts a minimum of nine innings and in which no opposing player reaches base. Thus, the pitcher (or pitchers) cannot allow any hits, walks, hit batsmen, or any opposing player to reach base safely for any other reason: in short, "27 up, 27 down". The feat has been achieved 23 times in the history of major league baseball—21 times since the modern era began in 1900.
Perfect gamePitching statisticsBaseball terminologyMajor League Baseball pitchers who have pitched a perfect gameMLB perfect games
The Mexican League (Spanish: Liga Mexicana de Béisbol) is a professional baseball league based in Mexico. It is currently a Class Triple-A league in organized Minor League Baseball, one step below Major League Baseball (MLB). Unlike the other two Triple-A circuits, the International League and the Pacific Coast League, Mexican League teams are not affiliated with Major League teams. The current champions are the Tigres de Quintana Roo.
Mexican LeagueMexican LeagueLatin American baseball leaguesBaseball leagues in MexicoOrganizations established in 1925Minor league baseball leagues
Grand slam (baseball)
In the sport of baseball, a grand slam is a home run hit with all three bases occupied by baserunners ("bases loaded"), thereby scoring four runs—the most possible in one play. According to The Dickson Baseball Dictionary, the term originated in the card game of contract bridge, in which a grand slam involves taking all the possible tricks.
Grand slam (baseball)Batting (baseball)Baseball terminology
Atlantic League of Professional Baseball
The Atlantic League of Professional Baseball is a professional, independent baseball organization located primarily in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, especially the greater metropolitan areas of the Northeast megalopolis. It operates in cities not served by Major or Minor League Baseball teams and is not affiliated with either.
Atlantic League of Professional BaseballIndependent baseball leagues in the United States1998 establishments in the United StatesAtlantic LeagueSports leagues established in 1998
This article is about the minor league baseball franchise, for other teams named Buffalo Bisons see Buffalo Bisons (disambiguation). This article covers all modern incarnations but focuses on the Double-A team founded in 1979 and the Triple-A team that moved from Wichita, Kansas in 1984.
Buffalo BisonsSports in Buffalo, New YorkInternational League teamsDefunct Eastern League baseball teamsPhiladelphia Phillies minor league affiliatesCleveland Indians minor league affiliatesFormer American Association (20th century) teamsProfessional baseball teams in New YorkNew York Mets minor league affiliatesFormer Eastern League baseball teamsSports clubs established in 1979
National Association of Professional Base Ball Players
The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NAPBBP), or simply the National Association (NA), was founded in 1871 and continued through the 1875 season. It succeeded and incorporated several professional clubs from the National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP); in turn several of its clubs created the succeeding National League, which essentially survives as professional baseball. The NA was the first professional baseball league.
National Association of Professional Base Ball Players1871 establishmentsNational Association of Professional Base Ball PlayersDefunct major baseball leagues in the United States1875 disestablishments
The Carolina League is a minor league baseball affiliation which operates in the South Atlantic Coast of the United States. Before 2002, it was classified as a "High A" league, indicating its status as a Class A league with the highest level of competition within that classification, and the fifth step between Rookie ball and the major leagues.
Carolina LeagueCarolina LeagueMinor baseball leagues in the United StatesBaseball leagues in North Carolina
In baseball, an earned run is any run for which the pitcher is held accountable (i.e. , the run scored as a result of normal pitching, and not due to a fielding error or a passed ball). Any runner(s) who tags his base and reaches home plate is scored against the pitcher as an earned run(s). An error made by the pitcher in fielding at his position is counted the same as an error by any other player.
Earned runPitching statisticsBaseball terminology
Win–loss record (pitching)
Win–loss record (pitching)
Rochester Red Wings
The Rochester Red Wings are a Triple-A team based in Rochester, New York. The team plays in the International League and are a minor league baseball affiliate of the Minnesota Twins major-league club. The Red Wings play in Frontier Field, located in downtown Rochester. The Red Wings were an affiliate of the St. Louis Cardinals for 32 years (1929–1960), then spent 42 years (1961–2002) as a farm club of the Baltimore Orioles before moving on to the Twins in 2003.
Rochester Red WingsInternational League teamsProfessional baseball teams in New YorkMinnesota Twins minor league affiliatesSports clubs established in 1899Rochester Red WingsSt. Louis Cardinals minor league affiliates
General manager (baseball)
In Major League Baseball, the general manager (GM) of a team typically controls player transactions and bears the primary responsibility on behalf of the ballclub during contract discussions with players. The general manager is also normally the person who hires and fires the coaching staff, including the field manager who acts as the head coach. In baseball, the term manager used without qualification almost always refers to the field manager, not the general manager.
General manager (baseball)Baseball occupationsBaseball executives
Korea Baseball Organization
The Korea Baseball Organization (KBO; Korean: 한국 야구 위원회) is the governing body for the professional leagues of baseball in South Korea. KBO should not be confused with the Korea Professional Baseball League. KBO was founded in 1981 and has been governing two leagues, Korea Professional Baseball (Korean: 한국 프로 야구) and Futures League since 1982.
Korea Baseball OrganizationKorea Baseball OrganizationOrganizations established in 1981Sports governing bodies in South KoreaBaseball governing bodies in Asia
Long Island University
Long Island University (LIU) is a private, coeducational, nonsectarian institution of higher education in the U.S. state of New York.
Long Island UniversityMiddle States Association of Colleges and SchoolsUniversities and colleges in Rockland County, New YorkLong Island UniversityUniversities and colleges in BrooklynNational Association of Independent Colleges and Universities membersUniversities and colleges on Long IslandUniversities and colleges in New York CityUniversities and colleges in New YorkEducational institutions established in 1926
Mickey Charles Mantle (October 20, 1931 – August 13, 1995) was an American baseball center fielder who played 18 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for the New York Yankees from 1951 to 1968. Mantle is regarded by many to be the greatest switch hitter of all time, and one of the greatest players in baseball history. Mantle was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1974 and was elected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team in 1999.
Mickey MantlePeople from Mayes County, OklahomaAmerican League Triple Crown winnersCancer deaths in TexasKansas City Blues (baseball) playersMajor League Baseball players with retired numbersIndependence Yankees playersJoplin Miners playersAlcohol-related deaths in TexasBaseball players from OklahomaMontreal Expos broadcastersGold Glove Award winnersAmerican League RBI championsNew York Yankees playersMajor League Baseball center fielders1995 deathsPeople from Dallas, TexasMajor League Baseball announcersDeaths from liver cancerNew York Yankees coachesAmerican ChristiansAmerican League batting championsAmerican League All-StarsSportspeople from OklahomaAmerican League home run championsOrgan transplant recipientsNational Baseball Hall of Fame inductees1931 births
Peter Edward Rose (born April 14, 1941), nicknamed "Charlie Hustle", is a former Major League Baseball player and manager. Rose played from 1963 to 1986, and managed from 1984 to 1989. Rose, a switch hitter, is the all-time Major League leader in hits (4,256), games played (3,562), at-bats (14,053) and outs (10,328).
Pete RoseMajor League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award winnersAmerican people of German descentMajor League Baseball second basemenNational League batting championsWWE Hall of FameMajor League Baseball player–managersMontreal Expos playersLiving peopleGambling addictsGold Glove Award winners1941 birthsMajor League Baseball controversiesGeneva Redlegs playersCincinnati Reds playersCincinnati Reds managersBaseball players from Cincinnati, OhioPhiladelphia Phillies playersMacon Peaches playersPew Fellows in the ArtsSports betting scandalsTampa Tarpons playersMajor League Baseball first basemenAmerican people convicted of tax crimesNational League All-StarsMajor League Baseball left fielders
A baseball park, also known as a baseball stadium, ball park, or ballpark is a venue where baseball is played. It consists of the playing field and the surrounding spectator seating. While the diamond and the areas denoted by white painted lines adhere to strict rules, guidelines for the rest of the field are flexible. The term "ballpark" sometimes refers either to the entire structure, or sometimes to just the playing field.
Baseball parkBaseball venuesSports venues
The Portland Beavers was the name of separate minor league baseball teams, which represented Portland, Oregon, in the Pacific Coast League (PCL). The team was established in 1903, the first year of the PCL. The most recent form of the Beavers exists presently as a Triple-A team representing the Padres of Tucson, Arizona.
Portland BeaversKansas City Athletics minor league affiliatesBrooklyn Dodgers minor league affiliatesPhiladelphia Phillies minor league affiliatesChicago Cubs minor league affiliatesCleveland Indians minor league affiliatesMinnesota Twins minor league affiliatesPittsburgh Pirates minor league affiliatesSan Diego Padres minor league affiliatesMilwaukee Brewers minor league affiliatesPortland Beavers
Toledo Mud Hens
The Toledo Mud Hens are a minor league baseball team located in Toledo, Ohio. The Mud Hens play in the International League, and are affiliated with the major league baseball team the Detroit Tigers, based approximately 50 miles to the north of Toledo. The current team is one of several professional clubs that have existed in Toledo since 1883. The name "Mud Hens" was first used in 1896, after the team was bought by Charles Strobel.
Toledo Mud HensInternational League teamsPhiladelphia Phillies minor league affiliatesSports in Toledo, OhioFormer American Association (20th century) teamsLucas County, OhioDetroit Tigers minor league affiliatesSports clubs established in 1897Toledo Mud Hens
1987 in film
1987 in filmYears in film1987 in film
2009 World Baseball Classic
The 2009 World Baseball Classic was an international baseball competition. It is the only international baseball tournament to feature a large number of players from the major leagues of North America and Asia. It began on March 5, 2009, and finished March 23, 2009. Japan emerged victorious for the second straight Classic, defeating rival South Korea 5-3 in 10 innings in the final. Daisuke Matsuzaka won his second World Baseball Classic MVP Award.
2009 World Baseball Classic2009 in baseball2009 World Baseball ClassicWorld Baseball Classic
A sports game is a video game that simulates the practice of traditional sports. Most sports have been recreated with a game, including team sports, athletics and extreme sports. Some games emphasize actually playing the sport (such as the Madden NFL series), whilst others emphasize strategy and organization. Some, such as Arch Rivals or Punch-Out!!, satirize the sport for comic effect.
Sports gameVideo game genresSports video games
A doubleheader is a set of two baseball games played between the same two teams on the same day in front of the same crowd. (The term originated in the railroad industry; see Double-heading. ) In addition, the term is often used unofficially to refer to a pair of games played by a team in a single day, but in front of different crowds and not in immediate succession.
Doubleheader (baseball)Sports televisionBaseball terminology
Hit by pitch
In baseball, hit by pitch (HBP), or hit batsman (HB), is a batter or his equipment (other than his bat) being hit in some part of his body by a pitch from the pitcher.
Hit by pitchBatting statisticsBaseball terminologyBaseball rulesBaseball pitchingPitching statistics
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